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CASE REPORT
Year : 2007  |  Volume : 51  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 240-243

Anaesthetic management of emergency pacemaker implantation in a case of neonatal lupus erythematosus with complete congenital heart block & severe respiratory distress


1 MD, Professor & Head, Department of Cardiac Anesthesiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029, India
2 MD* Classified Specialist, Indian Naval Hospital Ship Kalyani, Visakhapatnam - 530005, India
3 MD, Senior Resident, Department of Cardiac Anesthesiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029, India
4 MD, Consultant, Department of Cardiac Anesthesiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029, India

Correspondence Address:
Usha Kiran
Professor & Head, Department of Cardiac Anaesthesiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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An 8-week old 3-kilogram male baby was brought to this tertiary care hospital with respiratory distress, marked tracheal tug, poor feeding and a heart rate of 46/minute. The child had been referred from a peripheral hospital as a case of neonatal lupus with complete congenital heart block. The mother was seropositive for systemic lupus erythematosus with a history of two abortions. Evaluation on admission revealed a heart rate between 40-60/ minute, respiratory rate 40-50/ minute, inspiratory stridor, bilateral crepitations, chest retrac­tion and a marked tracheal tug that improved with prone positioning. Electrocardiography and echocardiography confirmed complete congenital heart block with cardiomegaly and mild left ventricular dysfunction. Keeping in view the impending congestive heart failure, possible early cardiomyopathy and the bad obstetric history ur­gent pacemaker implantation was planned to allow early recovery of the child. The anaesthetic risk was high due to the heart block, ventricular dysfunction, laryngomalacia, severe tracheal tug and anticipated difficult weaning from controlled ventilation. General anaesthesia was administered with endotracheal tube and con­trolled ventilation using ketamine, rocuronium and sufentanil. For patient safety invasive monitoring was pro­vided and external pacing was kept standby. Epicardial pacemaker leads were implanted onto the left ventricu­lar wall through a left anterior 6th intercostal space thoracotomy. The child was electively ventilated for two post operative days. The tracheal tug and secretions gradually subsided over 2 weeks with oxygen, antibiotics, steroids, bronchodilators and physiotherapy. At the time of discharge from hospital 2 weeks after the implant the child was feeding well, tracheal tug was minimal and the lungs were clear.


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