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Year : 2008  |  Volume : 52  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 387

Intra Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP): Past, Present and Future

1 SpR in Anaesthetics, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE5 1WW, United Kingdom
2 SpR in Anaesthetics, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, LE5 4PW, United Kingdom
3 Consultant Cardiothoracic Anaesthetist, Glenfield General Hospital, Leicester, LE3 1WW, United Kingdom

Correspondence Address:
Aamer B Ahmed
Consultant Cardiothoracic Anaesthetist, Glenfield General Hospital, Leicester, LE3 1WW
United Kingdom
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Intra Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) is the most commonly used mechanical circulatory assist device in cardiac patients. IABP can improve ventricular function by decreasing the preload and increasing systolic output with signifi­cant improvement in myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio. Pre-operative IABP therapy in 'high-risk' coronary patients has been shown to reduce hospital mortality and shorten ICU stay significantly, compared with controls. The introduction of sheathless insertion kits has reduced the incidence of vascular complication rates. Pro-Active Counter Pulsation is a new IABP system which automatically detects the irregular pattern and result is an improvement in the haemodynamic effect of IABP during periods of arrhythmia. Today, continued improvements in IABP technology permit safer use and earlier intervention to provide haemodynamic support. These developments have made the IABP a mainstay in the management of ischemic and dysfunctional myocardium. This review article aims to provide basic concept of IABP to hospital doctors especially anaesthetists, intensivists cardiologists and cardiac surgeons. It discusses the common indications, contraindications, the physiologic aspects of IABP, the equipment needed to facilitate IABP, the use of the IABP in special situations and complications of its use.

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