Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 387-393

Diabetic parturient - Anaesthetic implications


Department of Anaesthesiology, SCB Medical College, Cuttack-753 007, India

Correspondence Address:
Nibedita Pani
Department of Anaesthesiology, SCB Medical College, Cuttack-753 007
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-5049.71028

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Pregnancy induces progressive changes in maternal carbohydrate metabolism. As pregnancy advances insulin resistance and diabetogenic stress due to placental hormones necessitate compensatory increase in insulin secretion. When this compensation is inadequate gestational diabetes develops. 'Gestational diabetes mellitus' (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance with onset or recognition during pregnancy. Women diagnosed to have GDM are at increased risk of future diabetes predominantly type 2 DM as are their children. Thus GDM offers an important opportunity for the development, testing and implementation of clinical strategies for diabetes prevention. Timely action taken now in screening all pregnant women for glucose intolerance, achieving euglycaemia in them and ensuring adequate nutrition may prevent in all probability, the vicious cycle of transmitting glucose intolerance from one generation to another. Given that diabetic mothers have proportionately larger babies it is likely that vaginal delivery will be more difficult than in the normal population, with a higher rate of instrumentally assisted delivery, episiotomy and conversion to urgent caesarean section. So an indwelling epidural catheter is a better choice for labour analgesia as well to use, should a caesarean delivery become necessary. Diabetes in pregnancy has potential serious adverse effects for both the mother and the neonate. Standardized multidisciplinary care including anaesthetists should be carried out obsessively throughout pregnancy. Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder of pregnancy. In pregnancy, it has considerable cost and care demands and is associated with increased risks to the health of the mother and the outcome of the pregnancy. However, with careful and appropriate screening, multidisciplinary management and a motivated patient these risks can be minimized.


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