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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 57  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 223-229

Perioperative ischaemia-induced liver injury and protection strategies: An expanding horizon for anaesthesiologists


1 Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Anaesthesiology, Sahara Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Chandra Kant Pandey
Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Institute of Live and Biliary Sciences, Sector D-1, Kunj, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-5049.115576

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Liver resection is an effective modality of treatment in patients with primary liver tumour, metastases from colorectal cancers and selected benign hepatic diseases. Its aim is to resect the grossly visible tumour with clear margins and to ensure that the remnant liver mass has sufficient function which is adequate for survival. With the advent of better preoperative imaging, surgical techniques and perioperative management, there is an improvement in the outcome with decreased mortality. This decline in postoperative mortality after hepatic resection has encouraged surgeons for more radical liver resections, leaving behind smaller liver remnants in a bid to achieve curative surgeries. But despite advances in diagnostic, imaging and surgical techniques, postoperative liver dysfunction of varied severity including death due to liver failure is still a serious problem in such patients. Different surgical and non-surgical techniques like reducing perioperative blood loss and consequent decreased transfusions, vascular occlusion techniques (intermittent portal triad clamping and ischaemic preconditioning), administration of pharmacological agents (dextrose, intraoperative use of methylprednisolone, trimetazidine, ulinastatin and lignocaine) and inhaled anaesthetic agents (sevoflurane) and opioids (remifentanil) have demonstrated the potential benefit and minimised the adverse effects of surgery. In this article, the authors reviewed the surgical and non-surgical measures that could be adopted to minimise the risk of postoperative liver failure following liver surgeries with special emphasis on ischaemic and pharmacological preconditioning which can be easily adapted clinically.


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