Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 60  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 626-630

Types of studies and research design


Department of Anesthesiology, Max Smart Super Specialty Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Mukul Chandra Kapoor
6, Dayanand Vihar, New Delhi - 110 092
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-5049.190616

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Medical research has evolved, from individual expert described opinions and techniques, to scientifically designed methodology-based studies. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) was established to re-evaluate medical facts and remove various myths in clinical practice. Research methodology is now protocol based with predefined steps. Studies were classified based on the method of collection and evaluation of data. Clinical study methodology now needs to comply to strict ethical, moral, truth, and transparency standards, ensuring that no conflict of interest is involved. A medical research pyramid has been designed to grade the quality of evidence and help physicians determine the value of the research. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have become gold standards for quality research. EBM now scales systemic reviews and meta-analyses at a level higher than RCTs to overcome deficiencies in the randomised trials due to errors in methodology and analyses.


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