Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  
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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 61  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 308-314

Is segmental epidural anaesthesia an optimal technique for patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy?

1 Department of Anaesthesiology, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, Is, India
2 Department of Urology, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, Is, India

Correspondence Address:
Devangi A Parikh
Parijat, Pushpa Colony, Manchhubhai Road, Malad (East), Mumbai - 400 097, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0019-5049.204247

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Background and Aims: Neuraxial anaesthesia has recently become popular for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We conducted a study comparing general anaesthesia (GA) with segmental (T6–T12) epidural anaesthesia (SEA) for PCNL with respect to anaesthesia and surgical characteristics. Methods: Ninety American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status-I and II patients undergoing PCNL randomly received either GA or SEA. Overall patient satisfaction was the primary end point. Intraoperative haemodynamics, epidural block characteristics, post-operative pain, time to rescue analgesic, total analgesic consumption, discharge times from post-anaesthesia care unit, surgeon satisfaction scores and stone clearance were secondary end points. Parametric data were analysed by Student's t-test while non-parametric data were compared with Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Group SEA reported better patient satisfaction (P = 0.005). Patients in group GA had significantly higher heart rates (P = 0.0001) and comparable mean arterial pressures (P = 0.24). Postoperatively, time to first rescue analgesic and total tramadol consumption was higher in Group GA (P = 0.001). Group SEA had lower pain scores (P = 0.001). Time to reach Aldrete's score of 9 was shorter in group SEA (P = 0.0001). The incidence of nausea was higher in group GA (P = 0.001); vomiting rates were comparable (P = 0.15). One patient in group SEA developed bradycardia which was successfully treated. Eight patients (18%) had hypertensive episodes in group GA versus none in group SEA (P = 0.0001). One patient in GA group had pleural injury and was managed with intercostal drain. Stone clearance and post-operative haemoglobin levels were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: PCNL under SEA has a role in selected patients, for short duration surgery and in expert hands.

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