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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 63  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 771-779

Anaesthetic concerns in preterm and term neonates

Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rajeshwari Subramaniam
Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Critical Care, Room 5009, 5th Floor Teaching Block, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 110 029
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_591_19

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Anaesthesia for neonates is a composite of good knowledge of neonatal and transitional physiology combined with skill in airway maintenance and vascular access. When the newborn is a preterm, the complexities of management increase due to the small size and accompanying issues such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and apnoea. World over, the number of survivors of preterm birth is on the increase. We searched Pubmed for “Anesthesia, apnea, neonatal, neonates, physiology, preterm, spinal anesthesia”, as well as cross references from review articles. These babies have a high incidence of conditions warranting surgery (e.g., tracheoesophaeal fistula, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, anorectal malformations, incarcerated hernia, necrotising enterocolitis). The possibility of neurodevelopmental harm by anaesthetics is currently the topic of active research. In parallel, advances in paediatric anaesthesia equipment, use of regional and neuraxial anaesthesia and availability of monitoring have steadily increased the safety of anaesthesia in these tiny patients.

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