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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 64  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 463-469

Comparative analgesic efficacy of intravenous vs intrathecal dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to hyperbaric bupivacaine in subarachnoid block for below knee orthopaedic surgery

Department of Anesthesia, Dr Rajendra Medical Govt. College Kangra at Tanda, Himachal Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shelly Rana
Professor, Department of Anaesthesia, Dr Rajendra Prasad Medical College, Kangra at Tanda, Kangra - 176 001, Himachal Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_219_20

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Background and Aim: Intrathecal and intravenous dexmedetomidine has been used as adjuvant in subarachnoid block [SAB]. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of intravenous vs intrathecal dexmedetomidine as adjuvant to intrathecal bupivacaine. Methods: Ninety patients, aged 20–60 years belonging to American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II, scheduled for below knee orthopaedic surgeries under SAB were enrolled. In group I (n = 45) patients received intravenous dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg in 100 mL 0.9% normal saline [NS] intravenous over a period of 15 minutes given 20 minutes before SAB. Subarachnoid block was given with intrathecal (IT) 0.5% bupivacaine (H) 12.5 mg (2.5 mL) with 0.3 mL of NS. Patients in group II (n = 45) received 100 mL of 0.9% NS over a period of 15 minutes given 20 minutes before subarachnoid block. SAB was given with intrathecal 0.5% heavy bupivacaine 12.5 mg with 3 μg of dexmedetomidine (0.3 mL). The primary outcome was duration of analgesia and rescue analgesic requirement, whereas secondary outcome included pain scores. Results: The duration of analgesia was prolonged in group II (median [IQR]: 5 (6–7.5) h than in group I (median[IQR]: 4[2–4.5] h, P = 0.000). Median dose of rescue analgesics over period of 24 hours was less in group II as compared to group I (median [IQR]:150 (75–150) mg vs 195 (150–225) mg, P = 0.000). VAS score was lower in group II till 12 h in the postoperative period (P = 0.00). Conclusion: Intrathecal dexmedetomidine is more efficacious as compared to intravenous dexmedetomidine, due to favourable outcomes in terms of increased duration of postoperative analgesia and reduced rescue analgesic requirement.

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