Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July 2017
Volume 61 | Issue 7
Page Nos. 531-606

Online since Thursday, July 13, 2017

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Safe anaesthesia for all Indians: A distant dream? p. 531
Jigeeshu V Divatia
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Safety monitoring of local anaesthetic drugs from the perspective of Pharmacovigilance Programme of India p. 534
Pramod Kumar, Ismeet Kaur, Vivekanandan Kalaiselvan, Abhishank Singh
Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI) was established to promote patient safety by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India in July 2010. It covers various medical hospitals/institutes and National Health Programmes across the country. India is coordinating with various national and international programmes to be a part of international drug monitoring and to monitor the risk-benefit profile of medicines. At present, India has contributed more than 200,000 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to the database and can draw signals for regulatory decisions. To foster the culture of spontaneous reporting, India has launched paperless and simple modes of reporting ADRs such as Helpline and an Android application. This will help to create a national centre of excellence at par with global drug safety monitoring standards. With the increasing popularity of regional anaesthesia, adverse events may occur due to local anaesthetic drugs, techniques and adjuvants. Uncommon but clinically significant ADRs can be identified in a nationwide pharmacovigilance programme. Anaesthesiologists in India are encouraged to report local anaesthesia-related ADRs to the national pharmacovigilance database.
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An analysis of the predictors of mortality and morbidity in patients admitted after suicidal hanging to an Indian multidisciplinary Intensive Care Unit p. 538
MK Renuka, MS Kalaiselvan, AS Arunkumar
Background and Aims: Hanging is a frequently used method to attempt suicide in India. There is a lack of data in the Indian population regarding clinical features and outcomes of suicidal hanging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting mortality and morbidity in patients admitted with suicidal hanging to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods: A 6-year retrospective study of adult patients admitted to the ICU with suicidal hanging was analysed for demographics, mode of hanging, lead time to emergency room (ER) admission, clinical presentation, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores, admission Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and neurological outcomes. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality rate. Secondary outcomes were hospital length of stay (LOS), ICU-LOS, time for neurological recovery, organ support and duration of mechanical ventilation. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables. Results: We analysed data of 106 patients. The median age was 27 years [Interquartile Range (IQR) (22–34)]. The median lead time to ER admission was 1 h [IQR (0.5–1.4)] with median ICU stay of 3 days [IQR (2–4)]. Vasopressors were administered to 27.4% patients. GCS was ≤7 in 65% patients, and 84.9% patients received mechanical ventilation. Mortality rate was 10.3%. Survivors recovered with normal organ function. Conclusion: Suicidal hanging is associated with significant mortality. Admission GCS, APACHE II and 48 h SOFA score were predictors of poor outcome.
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Utility of non-invasive haemoglobin monitoring in oncosurgery patients p. 543
Namrata Gupta, Anita Kulkarni, AK Bhargava, Aditya Prakash, Nitika Gupta
Background and Aims: Oncosurgeries may incur massive blood loss demanding frequent blood sampling to assess blood loss and the need for intraoperative blood transfusions. Accuracy of non-invasive spectrophotometric haemoglobin (hereafter to be referred as SpHb) monitoring has been studied in various perioperative settings. The intraoperative use of Radical-7®, Masimo Corp., (Radical-7®) for SpHb monitoring may be useful during cancer surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the intraoperative utility of SpHb monitoring by the Radical-7® to guide intraoperative transfusion in oncosurgeries. Methods: Fifty adult patients, undergoing oncosurgery with anticipated blood loss of more than 20% of blood volume, were selected. Continuous SpHb monitoring was performed intraoperatively and blood transfusion was based on SpHb values. Simultaneous laboratory haemoglobin (LabHb) samples were taken for validation. The accuracy of intraoperative blood transfusions based on SpHb was analysed using Error Grid Analysis. Paired measurements of SpHb and LabHb were compared using Bland–Altman plot analysis. Results: There were 66 paired data points for blood transfusion from fifty patients with a correlation of 73% (P < 0.001) between SpHb and LabHb. In the Bland–Altman analysis, the bias was − 0.313 g/dl with ~ 95% of values within the limits of agreement of 1.81 g/dl to −2.44 g/dl. In the Error Grid Analysis, most data points were in the least error zone (Zone A). Conclusion: The Radical-7® has the advantage of providing SpHb value continuously to take prompt decision regarding blood transfusion intraoperatively.
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Effect of ketamine on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response in paediatric cardiac surgery: A prospective randomised controlled study p. 549
Tamer Hamed Ibrahim, Hassan Saad Abdelrahman, Mohammed A Alharbi, Ibrahim A Zabani, Mohamed Fouad Ismail, Heba Kary
Background and Aims: Paediatric cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with a marked inflammatory response and triggers release of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to study the effect of ketamine on the inflammatory response during correction of congenital cyanotic heart diseases. Methods: Sixty-six patients with congenital cyanotic heart diseases scheduled for cardiac surgery were randomised into three groups. Group A patients did not receive ketamine (control group), Group B patients received 2 mg/kg ketamine intravenous (IV) and Group C patients received ketamine 2 mg/kg IV and an IV infusion of ketamine (50 μg/kg/min). Interleukin (IL) levels for IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were examined in the three groups at four timings: pre-operative (baseline), intraoperative (after weaning off the CPB) and post-operative (6 and 24 h after weaning off CPB). Paired sample t-test and ANOVA test were used for statistical analysis and P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Within each group, the intra- and post-operative serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and CRP were significantly elevated from the baseline, however, TNF-α was not significantly elevated. There were no statistically significant differences in the IL, CRP or TNF-α levels between the three groups. Conclusion: Paediatric cardiac surgery for congenital cyanotic heart disease is a triggering factor for the inflammatory response, yet we could not detect any beneficial effect of ketamine on that response whether given either as an IV induction dose or continued as an IV infusion.
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The effect of addition of dexamethasone to levobupivacaine in parturients receiving combined spinal-epidural for analgesia for vaginal delivery Highly accessed article p. 556
Amr Samir Wahdan, Ahmed Ibrahim El-Sakka, Hassan Mostafa Ismail Gaafar
Background and Aims: Regional analgesia is commonly used for the relief of labour pain, Prolongation of analgesia can be achieved by adjuvant medications. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal levobupivacaine with dexamethasone for labour analgesia. Methods: A total of 80 females were included in this study, all were primigravidas undergoing vaginal delivery with cervical dilatation ≥4 cm and 50% or more effacement. Forty females were included randomly in either Group L (received intrathecal levobupivacaine 0.25% in 2 mL) or Group LD (received intrathecal levobupivacaine 0.25% combined with dexamethasone 4 mg in 2 mL). The primary outcome was the duration of spinal analgesia. Secondary outcomes included the total dose of epidural local anaesthetic given, time to delivery, neonatal outcome and adverse effects. Results: The duration of spinal analgesia was significantly longer in the LD group compared with L group (80.5 ± 12.4 min vs. 57.1 ± 11.5 min, respectively; P< 0.001). In Group LD compared with Group L, time from spinal analgesia to delivery was significantly lower (317.4 ± 98.9 min vs. 372.4 ± 118.8 min, respectively; P = 0.027), and total epidural levobupivacaine consumption was significantly lower (102.4 ± 34.8 mg vs. 120.1 ± 41.9 mg, respectively; P = 0.027). The two groups were comparable with respect to characteristics of sensory and motor block, haemodynamic parameters, pain scores, neonatal outcome and frequency of adverse effects. Conclusion: Intrathecal dexamethasone plus levobupivacaine prolongs the duration of spinal analgesia during combined spinal-epidural CSE for labour analgesia.
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Post-operative effectiveness of continuous wound infiltration, continuous epidural infusion and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia on post-operative pain management in patients undergoing spinal surgery p. 562
Anshuman Singh, Parul Jindal, Gurjeet Khurana, Ranjeet Kumar
Background and Aims: Very few studies have compared continuous wound infiltration (CWI), continuous epidural infusion (CEI) and intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) with morphine in spine surgery. This study compared these modalities in patients undergoing microdissectomy. Methods: This prospective, randomized control trial was conducted on 75 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status I or II undergoing microdiscectomy. Patients in all the three groups received morphine 1 mg IV, with a lockout period of 10 min after each bolus, and the maximum allowed dose was 15 mg/5 h postoperatively. Patients in Group A received CWI with 0.25% levobupivacaine 20 mL as bolus after extubation followed by infusion at 5 mL/h. Group B received CEI with 0.25% levobupivacaine at 5 mL/h. Patients in Group C received intravenous (IV) morphine by PCA pump only. The primary end points were static and dynamic visual analogue scores (VAS) and postoperative pain scores. Secondary observations were postoperative morphine consumption at 8 h, 24 h and 48 h, and patient satisfaction. Results: Group A showed greater analgesic effects at 12 h (P < 0.02), 24 h (P < 0.03), 36 h (P < 0.008) and 48 h (P < 0.007) when compared to the other two techniques, as pain scores were less in group A as compared to group B and C. The requirement of postoperative intravenous morphine (mg) was 18 ± 12.82, 22.92 ± 9.88, 41.56 ± 8.83 for groups A, B and C after 48 h (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Continuous wound infiltration is an effective postoperative pain control technique with minimal side effects, after spinal surgery.
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An observational study on patient admission in the anaesthesia gas monitor and minimum alveolar concentration monitoring: A deficiency with huge impact p. 570
Habib Md Reazaul Karim, Anilkumar Narayan, Md Yunus, Sanjay Kumar, Avinash Prakash, Sarasa Kumar Sahoo
Background and Aims: Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) monitoring is an integral part of modern-day anaesthesia. Both MAC and MAC-awake are age dependant, and age of the patient needs to be entered in the monitor. This study was aimed to assess the practice of patient birth year entry in the anaesthesia monitor and its impact on MAC monitoring. Methods: Sixty volatile anaesthetic-based general anaesthetics (GAs) were observed silently in two tertiary care teaching hospitals with regard to 'birth year' entry in the patient monitor. The impact on MAC for non-entry of age was assessed. The observed MAC reading and the MAC corrected for age (MACage) of the patients were noted. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences in observed MAC and MACagevalues. P <0.05 was significant. Results: Sixty GAs of patients aged between 10 and 68 years were observed; 96.67% anaesthetics were conducted without entering 'birth year'. Thirty-four patients (mean age 35.14 ± 15.38 years) were further assessed for impact of non-entry of age. The observed MAC was similar to MACage in patients aged 40 ± 5 years (36–45 years group). Nearly 79.41% of the observed MACs were incorrect; 55.88% patients were potentially underdosed whereas 23.53% were overdosed. Conclusion: Omitting patient age entry in the monitor results in erroneous MAC values, exposing patients <40 years to underdosing and older patients to overdose.
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Retrospective analysis of post-operative coagulopathy after major hepatic resection at a tertiary care centre in Northern India p. 575
Shweta A Singh, P Vivekananthan, Ankur Sharma, Sandeep Sharma, Kishore GS Bharathy
Background and Aims: Hepatic resection is a major surgery associated with intraoperative massive fluid shifts, blood loss, haemodynamic instability and risk of development of post-hepatectomy liver failure. Hepatic resection predisposes the patient to coagulopathy as well as venous thrombosis. However, due to the development of deranged coagulation profile post-operatively, there is a dilemma in starting thromboprophylaxis. Our aim in this study was to determine the incidence of coagulopathy in patients undergoing major hepatectomy. Methods: In this retrospective study, we included 86 patients who had undergone major hepatectomy between January 2010 and December 2015 at our centre. Intraoperatively, we noted the number of liver segments resected, details of epidural catheter insertion, estimated blood loss, transfusion requirement and need for mechanical ventilation post-operatively. Trends of international normalised ratio (INR) and platelet values were recorded until post-operative day 5. Results: Of the 86 patients, 6 (7%) had an abnormal coagulation profile pre-operatively and 39 (45.34%) patients developed a derangement in their coagulation profile on 1st post-operative day (POD). Platelet count was significantly lower and INR values were significantly higher than the pre-operative values on all 5 PODs. Sixty-seven (78%) patients had pre-operative epidural catheter insertion for post-operative pain management. Mechanical thrombophylaxis was used routinely. Conclusions: The incidence of post-operative coagulopathy in our patients who underwent major liver resection was 45.34%. Epidural catheters could be removed safely without transfusion between POD 5 and 7. There was no incidence of venous thrombosis or thromboembolism.
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A randomised comparative evaluation of supraclavicular and infraclavicular approaches to brachial plexus block for upper limb surgeries using both ultrasound and nerve stimulator p. 581
Ranganathan Jothi Abhinaya, Rajagopalan Venkatraman, Palanisamy Matheswaran, Govindarajan Sivarajan
Background and Aims: The supraclavicular and infraclavicular brachial plexus blocks have a similar distribution of anaesthesia, and both can be used effectively for surgeries of the upper limb. This study aimed to compare the supraclavicular and infraclavicular approaches of brachial plexus blocks, guided by ultrasound and neurostimulation. Methods: Sixty adult patients scheduled for elective upper limb surgery of the elbow and/or below were randomly divided into two groups: infraclavicular Group (I) and supraclavicular Group (S). All the blocks were performed with the aid of ultrasound-guided nerve stimulator confirmation. The two groups were compared with respect to block performance time, onset of sensory and motor blockade, readiness for surgery, success rate and complications. The statistical analysis was performed with Student t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The block performance time for the infraclavicular group was 9.57 ± 3.19 min, whereas for supraclavicular group, it was 11.53 ± 2.90 min with similar success rates (93.3%). Onset of sensory blockade was achieved earlier (6.43 ± 2.61 min) in Group I than Group S (8.45 ± 2.87 min, P = 0.006). The onset of motor blockade was similar in Group I (7.32 ± 2.90 min) and Group S (8.68 ± 3.50 min, P = 0.121). The patient satisfaction was similar in both the groups. One patient had a pneumothorax, three patients developed Horner syndrome and another had clinically symptomatic diaphragmatic paresis in Group S. Conclusion: The infraclavicular block is more rapidly executed compared to supraclavicular block with similar success rates and fewer complications in the presence of ultrasound and nerve stimulator and hence should be preferred.
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Local anaesthetic systemic toxicity following oral ingestion in a child: Revisiting dibucaine p. 587
Raylene Dias, Nandini Dave, Milind S Tullu, Chandrahas T Deshmukh
Dibucaine, a potent and toxic local anaesthetic, although currently withdrawn by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use as a spinal anaesthetic, continues to remain available in many over-the-counter topical formulations. Systemic toxicity following oral ingestion of local anaesthetics is rare. We report a case of accidental ingestion of dibucaine (ear drops) in a 7-year-old child who developed diplopia, giddiness, ventricular premature contractions and a right bundle branch block. We also present a brief discussion on the pharmacologic and toxicity profile of dibucaine, the Naranjo algorithm for assessing causality in case of adverse drug reactions and a review of current guidelines on the management of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity.
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Perioperative management of patients with severe hypophosphataemia secondary to oncogenic osteomalacia: Our experience and review of literature p. 590
Alka Verma, Saipriya Tewari, Ashish Kannaujia
Oncogenic osteomalacia (OOM) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome associated with mesenchymal tumours. It is characterised by phosphaturia, hypophosphataemia, decreased serum Vitamin D3 levels and severe osteomalacia. OOM-inducing tumours are usually benign, arising either from bone or soft tissue, with extremities and craniofacial region being the most common sites. Surgical resection of the tumour remains the mainstay of treatment. Challenges to an anaesthesiologist arise when such patients are planned for surgical resection of the underlying tumour. All the perioperative dilemmas are directly related to the severe hypophosphataemia. We describe three such cases of OOM and their perioperative management.
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Distributing pulse oximeter: An initiative for improving patient safety and care p. 594
Amit Rastogi, Anil Agarwal, Prabhat Kumar Singh, Rudrashish Haldar, Ashish Kannaujia
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Epidural analgesia information card averted permanent neurological sequelae p. 597
Sumitra G Bakshi, Gautham Rajan, Parmanand N Jain
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Combined spinal epidural anaesthesia in a case of primigravida with coarctation of aorta with severe hypertension for elective lower segment caesarean section p. 598
Nupur Dua, B K Ashok Kumar, S Chaya, Tejal N Jivrajani
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Sneaky leaks: Old devil, new location p. 600
Goneppanavar Umesh, Jasvinder Kaur, Rashmi Annigeri, KR Thilakchand
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A rare case of variation in the anatomical relationship between the common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein due to enlarged thyroid p. 601
Mayur Chillal Ramakrishna, Shalendra Singh, Ankur Khandelwal
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Transthoracic oesophagectomy in a patient with Fanconi's anaemia p. 602
Radhika A Dash, Kalpana P Balakrishnan
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Concealing research outcomes: Are there times when it is actually justified? p. 605
Hilary P Grocott
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Lighter Planes p. 606
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