Indian Journal of Anaesthesia

CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
Year
: 2012  |  Volume : 56  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 370--375

Randomized double-blind comparison of prophylactic ketamine, clonidine and tramadol for the control of shivering under neuraxial anaesthesia


Rama Wason, Nikhil Jain, Poonam Gupta, Anoop R Gogia 
 Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Nikhil Jain
D-103, Narwana Apartment, I. P. Extension, Delhi - 92
India

Background: Shivering is a common problem during neuraxial anaesthesia. Neuraxial anaesthesia impairs thermoregulatory control and up to a 56.7% incidence of shivering has been reported. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic use of intravenous ketamine, clonidine and tramadol in control of shivering and to note any side-effects of the drugs used. Setting and Design: Randomised double-blind study. Methods: This study was conducted in 200 ASA grade I and II patients. Neuraxial block was performed with 2.8 mL (14 mg) of 0.5% bupivacaine heavy in all patients. The patients were randomly allocated into four groups of 50 each to receive saline as placebo (group P), ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (group K), Clonidine 75 mcg (group C) and Tramadol 0.5 mg/kg (group T). Temperature and hemodynamic parameters were recorded at every 5-min interval. Shivering was graded from 0 to 4 grades and, if grade 3 shivering occurred, the study drug was considered as ineffective and intravenous pethidine 25 mg was given as rescue drug. Statistical Analysis: Data among groups was compared using one-way ANOVA. The incidence of shivering and side-effects were compared using the chi-square test. Results: The incidence of grade 3 shivering showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.001) in group P (27/50) as compared with the other groups (group K=5/50, group C=2/50, group T=4/50). No drug showed any statistically significant advantage over the other. No major hemodynamic changes were seen with prophylactic use of test drugs; however, sedation score was significantly higher in group K (P<0.05) as compared with the other groups. Conclusion: The prophylactic use of ketamine, clonidine and tramadol were effective in preventing shivering during neuraxial anaesthesia without causing any major untoward side-effects.


How to cite this article:
Wason R, Jain N, Gupta P, Gogia AR. Randomized double-blind comparison of prophylactic ketamine, clonidine and tramadol for the control of shivering under neuraxial anaesthesia.Indian J Anaesth 2012;56:370-375


How to cite this URL:
Wason R, Jain N, Gupta P, Gogia AR. Randomized double-blind comparison of prophylactic ketamine, clonidine and tramadol for the control of shivering under neuraxial anaesthesia. Indian J Anaesth [serial online] 2012 [cited 2020 Aug 3 ];56:370-375
Available from: http://www.ijaweb.org/article.asp?issn=0019-5049;year=2012;volume=56;issue=4;spage=370;epage=375;aulast=Wason;type=0