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   2014| September-October  | Volume 58 | Issue 5  
    Online since November 14, 2014

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Overview of the coagulation system
Sanjeev Palta, Richa Saroa, Anshu Palta
September-October 2014, 58(5):515-523
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144643  PMID:25535411
Coagulation is a dynamic process and the understanding of the blood coagulation system has evolved over the recent years in anaesthetic practice. Although the traditional classification of the coagulation system into extrinsic and intrinsic pathway is still valid, the newer insights into coagulation provide more authentic description of the same. Normal coagulation pathway represents a balance between the pro coagulant pathway that is responsible for clot formation and the mechanisms that inhibit the same beyond the injury site. Imbalance of the coagulation system may occur in the perioperative period or during critical illness, which may be secondary to numerous factors leading to a tendency of either thrombosis or bleeding. A systematic search of literature on PubMed with MeSH terms 'coagulation system, haemostasis and anaesthesia revealed twenty eight related clinical trials and review articles in last 10 years. Since the balance of the coagulation system may tilt towards bleeding and thrombosis in many situations, it is mandatory for the clinicians to understand physiologic basis of haemostasis in order to diagnose and manage the abnormalities of the coagulation process and to interpret the diagnostic tests done for the same.
  17,232 5,968 29
Massive transfusion and massive transfusion protocol
Vijaya Patil, Madhavi Shetmahajan
September-October 2014, 58(5):590-595
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144662  PMID:25535421
Haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Rapid transfusion of large volumes of blood products is required in patients with haemorrhagic shock which may lead to a unique set of complications. Recently, protocol based management of these patients using massive transfusion protocol have shown improved outcomes. This section discusses in detail both management and complications of massive blood transfusion.
  11,231 5,469 5
Indications for blood and blood product transfusion
Sandhya Yaddanapudi, LN Yaddanapudi
September-October 2014, 58(5):538-542
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144648  PMID:25535414
Transfusion of blood products carries certain inherent risks and hence it should be undertaken only if it improves patient outcome. A review of the literature was carried out to find the indications and effects of transfusion on morbidity and mortality of patients. There is high-quality evidence showing that restrictive blood transfusion with a transfusion trigger of haemoglobin of 7-8 g/dl or the presence of symptoms of anaemia is safe and not associated with increased mortality compared with liberal transfusion. Thus, restrictive strategy is strongly recommended in surgical and critically ill-patients. There is moderate evidence for the use of plasma and platelet transfusion in patients receiving massive blood transfusion. There is not enough evidence to support the use of plasma, platelets and cryoprecipitate in any other clinical setting. Retrospective studies show improved survival after high plasma and platelet to red blood cell ratio of 1:1:1, but this has not been confirmed in randomised trials.
  9,508 3,633 4
Overview of blood components and their preparation
Debdatta Basu, Rajendra Kulkarni
September-October 2014, 58(5):529-537
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144647  PMID:25535413
The whole blood which is a mixture of cells, colloids and crystalloids can be separated into different blood components namely packed red blood cell (PRBC) concentrate, platelet concentrate, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. Each blood component is used for a different indication; thus the component separation has maximized the utility of one whole blood unit. Different components need different storage conditions and temperature requirements for therapeutic efficacy. A variety of equipments to maintain suitable ambient conditions during storage and transportation are in vogue. The blood components being foreign to a patient may produce adverse effects that may range from mild allergic manifestations to fatal reactions. Such reactions are usually caused by plasma proteins, leucocytes, red cell antigens, plasma and other pathogens. To avoid and reduce such complications, blood products are modified as leukoreduced products, irradiated products, volume reduced products, saline washed products and pathogen inactivated products. The maintenance of blood inventory forms a major concern of blood banking particularly of rare blood groups routinely and common blood groups during disasters. PRBCs can be stored for years using cryopreservation techniques. New researches in red cell cultures and blood substitutes herald new era in blood banking.
  9,460 3,495 11
Coagulation testing in the perioperative period
Venkatesan Thiruvenkatarajan, Ashlee Pruett, Sanjib Das Adhikary
September-October 2014, 58(5):565-572
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144657  PMID:25535418
Perioperative coagulation management is a complex task that has a significant impact on the perioperative journey of patients. Anaesthesia providers play a critical role in the decision-making on transfusion and/or haemostatic therapy in the surgical setting. Various tests are available in identifying coagulation abnormalities in the perioperative period. While the rapidly available bedside haemoglobin measurements can guide the transfusion of red blood cells, blood product administration is guided by many in vivo and in vitro tests. The introduction of newer anticoagulant medications and the implementation of the modified in vivo coagulation cascade have given a new dimension to the field of perioperative transfusion medicine. A proper understanding of the application and interpretation of the coagulation tests is vital for a good perioperative outcome.
  9,052 3,713 3
Adverse events related to blood transfusion
Sandeep Sahu, Hemlata , Anupam Verma
September-October 2014, 58(5):543-551
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144650  PMID:25535415
The acute blood transfusion reactions are responsible for causing most serious adverse events. Awareness about various clinical features of acute and delayed transfusion reactions with an ability to assess the serious reactions on time can lead to a better prognosis. Evidence-based medicine has changed today' s scenario of clinical practice to decrease adverse transfusion reactions. New evidence-based algorithms of transfusion and improved haemovigilance lead to avoidance of unnecessary transfusions perioperatively. The recognition of adverse events under anaesthesia is always challenging. The unnecessary blood transfusions can be avoided with better blood conservation techniques during surgery and with anaesthesia techniques that reduce blood loss. Better and newer blood screening methods have decreased the infectious complications to almost negligible levels. With universal leukoreduction of red blood cells (RBCs), selection of potential donors such as use of male donors only plasma and restriction of RBC storage, most of the non-infectious complications can be avoided.
  9,370 3,226 13
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
A Venugopal
September-October 2014, 58(5):603-608
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144666  PMID:25535423
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a reflection of an underlying systemic disorder which affects the coagulation system, simultaneously resulting in pro-coagulant activation, fibrinolytic activation, and consumption coagulopathy and finally may result in organ dysfunction and death. Though septicaemia is the most common cause of DIC, several other conditions can also lead to it. A diagnosis of DIC should be made only in the presence of a causative factor supported by repeated laboratory tests for coagulation profile and clotting factors. An effective scoring system helps to detect an overt DIC and a high score closely correlates with mortality. Treatment of DIC is aimed at combating the underlying disorder followed by supportive management. Low molecular weight heparin is advocated in special situations whereas anti-thrombin III and activated protein C are of doubtful value. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment backed by laboratory support can reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with it. The methodology of search for this review article involved hand search from text books and internet search using Medline (via PubMed) using key words DIC, thrombosis, fibrin degradation products, anti-thrombin and tissue factor for the last 25 years and also recent evidence-based reviews.
  8,562 3,720 4
Blood groups systems
Ranadhir Mitra, Nitasha Mishra, Girija Prasad Rath
September-October 2014, 58(5):524-528
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144645  PMID:25535412
International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.
  8,511 2,272 6
Legal and ethical issues in safe blood transfusion
Shivaram Chandrashekar, Ambuja Kantharaj
September-October 2014, 58(5):558-564
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144654  PMID:25535417
Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS), while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act) is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT) find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre) is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI) requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO) and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC) deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal.
  9,135 1,620 1
Management of patients who refuse blood transfusion
N Kiran Chand, H Bala Subramanya, G Venkateswara Rao
September-October 2014, 58(5):658-664
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144680  PMID:25535432
A small group of people belonging to a certain religion, called Jehovah's witness do not accept blood transfusion or blood products, based on biblical readings. When such group of people are in need of health care, their faith and belief is an obstacle for their proper treatment, and poses legal, ethical and medical challenges for attending health care provider. Due to the rapid growth in the membership of this group worldwide, physicians attending hospitals should be prepared to manage such patients. Appropriate management of such patients entails understanding of ethical and legal issues involved, providing meticulous medical management, use of prohaemostatic agents, essential interventions and techniques to reduce blood loss and hence, reduce the risk of subsequent need for blood transfusion. An extensive literature search was performed using search engines such as Google scholar, PubMed, MEDLINE, science journals and textbooks using keywords like 'Jehovah's witness', 'blood haemodilution', 'blood salvage' and 'blood substitutes'.
  7,283 1,987 1
Perioperative blood management
M Manjuladevi, KS Vasudeva Upadhyaya
September-October 2014, 58(5):573-580
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144658  PMID:25535419
Perioperative anaemia and allogenic blood transfusion (ABT) are known to increase the risk of adverse clinical outcomes. The quality, cost and availability of blood components are also major limitations with regard to ABT. Perioperative patient blood management (PBM) strategies should be aimed at minimizing and improving utilization of blood components. The goals of PBM are adequate preoperative evaluation and optimization of haemoglobin and bleeding parameters, techniques to minimize blood loss, blood conservation technologies and use of transfusion guidelines with targeted therapy. Attention to these details can help in cost reduction and improved patient outcome.
  5,543 3,011 -
EDITORIAL
Blood transfusion in anaesthesia and critical care: Less is more!
JV Divatia
September-October 2014, 58(5):511-514
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144641  PMID:25535410
  3,785 2,188 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Blood transfusion practices in obstetric anaesthesia
Ashok Jadon, Rajni Bagai
September-October 2014, 58(5):629-636
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144674  PMID:25535427
Blood transfusion is an essential component of emergency obstetric care and appropriate blood transfusion significantly reduces maternal mortality. Obstetric haemorrhage, especially postpartum haemorrhage, remains one of the major causes of massive haemorrhage and a prime cause of maternal mortality. Blood loss and assessment of its correct requirement are difficult in pregnancy due to physiological changes and comorbid conditions. Many guidelines have been used to assess the requirement and transfusion of blood and its components. Infrastructural, economic, social and religious constraints in blood banking and donation are key issues to formulate practice guidelines. Available current guidelines for transfusion are mostly from the developed world; however, they can be used by developing countries keeping available resources in perspective.
  3,706 2,135 2
Approach to bleeding patient
Ramachandran Gopinath, Y Sreekanth, Monu Yadav
September-October 2014, 58(5):596-602
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144664  PMID:25535422
Managing a bleeding patient is very challenging for the perioperative physician. Bleeding in a patient would be due to inherited or acquired disorders of haemostasis. Identifying the patients at risk of bleeding and utilising prophylactic treatment protocols has good outcomes. Along with clinical signs, trends in monitoring coagulation parameters and analysing blood picture are necessary. Management of patients in the postoperative period and in intensive care unit should be focused on normalization of coagulation profile as early as possible with available blood and its products. Available recombinant factors should be given priority as per the approved indications. Exploring the surgical site should be considered for persistent bleeding because haemodynamic compromise, excessive transfusion of fluids, blood and its products and more inotropic support may have a negative impact on the patient outcome.
  3,800 1,805 1
Blood transfusion practices in neuroanaesthesia
Zulfiqar Ali, Nelofar Hassan, Sumaya Syed
September-October 2014, 58(5):622-628
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144670  PMID:25535426
Neuroanaesthesia practice is associated with risk of significant blood loss resulting in anaemia in the intraoperative and postoperative period. The transfusion triggers in a neurologically injured brain are not clearly defined. Both a low haematocrit and a high haematocrit have not shown any improvement in the outcome. Transfusion of red blood cells may improve the cerebral oxygenation on neurophysiological monitors. However, these benefits have not been translated into clinical practice. Transfusion in subarachnoid haemorrhage leads to increased incidence of vasospasm and a poor outcome. Restrictive transfusion strategy is seen to have a lower incidence of pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bacteremia and septic shock in severe head injury. Current evidence suggests that a haemoglobin (Hb) level of <7 g/dl may be deleterious to the neurosurgical population. Target Hb of 8-9 g/dl may be desirable intraoperatively. Different transfusion triggers may hold true for different neurosurgical pathologies.
  3,269 2,148 -
The hypercoagulable states in anaesthesia and critical care
Bala D Bande, Saroj B Bande, Suchitra Mohite
September-October 2014, 58(5):665-671
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144682  PMID:25535433
Hypercoagulable disorders are now diagnosed more frequently than before. These patients are, usually, managed with multiple anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications. Left unmonitored and unevaluated, there can be disastrous haemorrhagic or thrombotic complications. Appropriate perioperative and anaesthetic management of these patients will invite an aetiological diagnosis, severity analysis and the on-going treatment review. Different assays, thromboelastography and molecular cytogenetics have helped to diagnose these conditions precisely and thus guide the long-term management. Besides this, there are varieties of clinical conditions that will predispose to the hypercoagulability. These need to be defined and classified in order to offer a suitable therapeutic option. Pregnancy is one such important condition and can have more than one responsible factor favouring hypercoagulability. With such diverse kinds of disorders, it would be essential to note the anaesthetic implications, to avoid adverse perioperative outcomes. Available evidence based guidelines will help to make the therapeutic approach more precise. Selection of the appropriate technique of anaesthesia, offering the appropriate anticoagulation bridging as necessary and defining an appropriate interval and time for the intervention will help to minimise the complications.
  3,920 1,369 1
Transfusion practices in trauma
V Trichur Ramakrishnan, Srihari Cattamanchi
September-October 2014, 58(5):609-615
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144668  PMID:25535424
Resuscitation of a severely traumatised patient with the administration of crystalloids, or colloids along with blood products is a common transfusion practice in trauma patients. The determination of this review article is to update on current transfusion practices in trauma. A search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of published studies were conducted using a combination of key-words. Recent articles addressing the transfusion practises in trauma from 2000 to 2014 were identified and reviewed. Trauma induced consumption and dilution of clotting factors, acidosis and hypothermia in a severely injured patient commonly causes trauma-induced coagulopathy. Early infusion of blood products and early control of bleeding decreases trauma-induced coagulopathy. Hypothermia and dilutional coagulopathy are associated with infusion of large volumes of crystalloids. Hence, the predominant focus is on damage control resuscitation, which is a combination of permissive hypotension, haemorrhage control and haemostatic resuscitation. Massive transfusion protocols improve survival in severely injured patients. Early recognition that the patient will need massive blood transfusion will limit the use of crystalloids. Initially during resuscitation, fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells (PRBCs) and platelets should be transfused in the ratio of 1:1:1 in severely injured patients. Fresh whole blood can be an alternative in patients who need a transfusion of 1:1:1 thawed plasma, PRBCs and platelets. Close monitoring of bleeding and point of care coagulation tests are employed, to allow goal-directed plasma, PRBCs and platelets transfusions, in order to decrease the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury.
  3,392 1,732 3
Perioperative neonatal and paediatric blood transfusion
Avnish Bharadwaj, Mamta Khandelwal, Suresh Kumar Bhargava
September-October 2014, 58(5):652-657
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144679  PMID:25535431
Paediatric patients undergoing surgical procedures commonly require some volume of blood or blood component replacement in the perioperative period. Paediatric patients undergoing major surgery associated with substantial blood loss should be evaluated pre-operatively. Pre-operative correction of anaemia may be done considering the age, plasma volume status, clinical status and comorbidities. Maximum allowable blood loss (MABL) for surgery must be calculated, and appropriate quantity of blood and blood components should be arranged. Intraoperative monitoring of blood loss should be done, and volume of transfusion should be calculated in a protocol based manner considering the volemia and the trigger threshold for transfusion for the patient and the MABL. Early haemostasis should be achieved by judicious administration of red blood cells, blood components and pharmacological agents.
  3,071 1,558 1
Red blood cell transfusion strategies and Maximum surgical blood ordering schedule
Shivakumar S Iyer, Jignesh Shah
September-October 2014, 58(5):581-589
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144660  PMID:25535420
Blood transfusion is one of the practices that is in vogue because it expands blood volume and purportedly improves the oxygen carrying capacity. Despite this supposed physiological benefit, paradoxically, both anaemia and transfusion are independently associated with organ injury and increased morbidity. Historically, transfusion was used to maintain blood haemoglobin concentration above 10 g/dL and a haematocrit above 30%. There is now a greater emphasis on interventions to reduce the use of transfusion as it is a scarce and expensive resource with many serious adverse effects. Institutional maximum surgical blood ordering schedule algorithm developed with data analysis and consensus of surgeons, anaesthesiologists and blood banks can reduce the overuse of blood. A PubMed search was performed with search words/combination of words 'erythrocyte transfusion, adverse effects, economics, mortality, therapy, therapeutic use and utilisation'. Search yielded a total of 1541 articles that were screened for clinical relevance for the purpose of this review.
  2,813 1,351 -
Role of therapeutic apheresis and phlebotomy techniques in anaesthesia and critical care
Neeta Bose, Hitendra Kanzariya
September-October 2014, 58(5):672-678
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144685  PMID:25535434
  2,701 1,048 -
Blood transfusion practices in cardiac anaesthesia
Hanumantha Rao Mangu, Aloka Samantaray, Muralidhar Anakapalli
September-October 2014, 58(5):616-621
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144669  PMID:25535425
The primary reasons for blood transfusion in cardiac surgery are to correct anaemia and to improve tissue oxygen delivery. However, there is a considerable debate regarding the actual transfusion trigger at which the benefits of transfusion overweight the risk. The association between extreme haemodilution, transfusion and adverse outcome after cardio pulmonary bypass (CPB) is not clear and the current available literature is not sufficient to provide a strong recommendation regarding the safe haematocrit range during CPB. There is no quality evidence to support use of fresh red blood cell except during massive transfusion or exchange transfusion in neonate. Overall concern regarding the safety of allogeneic blood transfusion resulted in the search for autologous blood transfusion and perioperative blood salvage. The aim of this review is to provide cardiac surgery specific clinically useful guidelines pertaining to transfusion triggers, optimal haemodilution during CPB, autologous blood transfusion and role of perioperative blood salvage based on available evidence.
  2,250 1,134 -
Blood transfusion practices in cancer surgery
Juan P Cata, Vijaya Gottumukkala
September-October 2014, 58(5):637-642
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144675  PMID:25535428
Cancer patients are commonly transfused with blood products immediately before, during or after major surgery. Blood loss and haemodilution are the most common causes of red blood cells (RBCs) administration and coagulopathies are the indications for the infusion of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), cryoprecipitates and platelets. Transfusion-related immune modulation is a complication associated with the administration of blood products. A decreased immune surveillance as a consequence of blood transfusions has been linked to cancer recurrence and progression. Moreover, soluble factors present in packed RBCs, platelets and FFP can directly stimulate tumour growth and spread. Two meta-analyses suggest that the administration of blood products is associated with shorter recurrence-free survival and overall survival after colorectal cancer surgery. More studies are needed to show such association in different cancer patient populations.
  2,102 1,074 3
Transfusion transmitted diseases in perioperative and intensive care settings
Rekha Das, Upendra Hansda
September-October 2014, 58(5):552-557
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144651  PMID:25535416
Patients in the perioperative period and intensive care unit are commonly exposed to blood transfusion (BT). They are at increased risk of transfusion transmitted bacterial, viral and protozoal diseases. The risk of viral transmission has decreased steadily, but the risk of bacterial transmission remains same. Bacterial contamination is more in platelet concentrates than in red cells and least in plasma. The chances of sepsis, morbidity and mortality depend on the number of transfusions and underlying condition of the patient. Challenges to safe BT continue due to new emerging pathogens and various management problems. Strategies to restrict BT, optimal surgical and anaesthetic techniques to reduce blood loss and efforts to develop transfusion alternatives should be made. Literature search was performed using search words/phrases blood transfusion, transfusion, transfusion transmitted diseases, transfusion transmitted bacterial diseases, transfusion transmitted viral diseases, transfusion transmitted protozoal diseases or combinations, on PubMed and Google Scholar from 1990 to 2014.
  2,025 1,110 -
Blood transfusion practices in sepsis
TVSP Murthy
September-October 2014, 58(5):643-646
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144676  PMID:25535429
Sepsis is a clinical syndrome characterised by systemic inflammation due to infection. There is a spectrum with severity ranging from sepsis to severe sepsis and septic shock. Even with optimal treatment, mortality due to severe sepsis or septic shock is significant and poses a challenge to management. Antibiotics, source control, resuscitation with fluids, vasopressor and inotropic agents are the main-stay of treatment for septic shock. These may be supplemented with transfusion of red blood cells and or blood products, in the case of anaemia to sustain sufficient oxygen delivery [1] or to manage associated haematological issues. Transfusion in sepsis has always been a debatable issue, especially in relation to choice of the fluid and the role of blood or blood product transfusion.
  1,845 1,215 3
Blood transfusion practices in liver transplantation
MN Chidananda Swamy
September-October 2014, 58(5):647-651
DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144677  PMID:25535430
Blood loss and blood transfusion have been inherently associated with liver transplantation. Bleeding has been attributed to the various factors which are associated with chronic liver dysfunction. Various surgical and anaesthetic strategies have been developed over the years to reduce bleeding and also to optimise the usage of various blood and blood products perioperatively. The present day success of liver transplantation can be attributed to these issues where transfusion practices have changed. Although several centres are successfully performing liver transplantations in large numbers, there is still a large variability in the usage of blood and blood products perioperatively among the institutions and even among different anaesthesiologists from the same institution. The present article deals with the various factors confounding this concept of blood transfusion practices and the various strategies adopted to reduce the transfusion requirements in the perioperative period.
  1,779 977 -
CORRIGENDUM
Corrigendum

September-October 2014, 58(5):679-679
DOI:DOI: 10.4103/0019-5049.144687  
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Corrigendum

September-October 2014, 58(5):679-679
DOI:DOI: 10.4103/0019-5049.144690  
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