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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: This figure illustrates that a retrospective database study can only provide insights into the association between an exposure (e.g., intraoperative hypotension) and an outcome. In contrast, a randomised controlled trial can provide evidence for a causal relation between the exposure (that is modified by an intervention) and an endpoint

Figure 1: This figure illustrates that a retrospective database study can only provide insights into the association between an exposure (e.g., intraoperative hypotension) and an outcome. In contrast, a randomised controlled trial can provide evidence for a causal relation between the exposure (that is modified by an intervention) and an endpoint