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CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 53  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 434-442

An Acetazolamide Based Multimodal Analgesic Approach Versus Conventional Pain Management in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Living Donor Nephrectomy


1 Senior Resident, Department of Anaesthesia & Intensive care, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh-160012, India
2 Associate Professor, Department of Anaesthesia & Intensive care, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh-160012, India
3 Professor & Head, Department of Anaesthesia & Intensive care, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh-160012, India
4 Professor & Head, Department of Transplant Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh-160012, India
5 Assistant Professor, Department of Transplant Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh-160012, India
6 Professor, Department of Anaesthesia & Intensive care, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh-160012, India

Correspondence Address:
Indu Sen
Post box No 1519, PGI Campus, Sectorl 2-A, Chandigarh-160012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 20640205

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Choice of an appropriate anaesthetic technique and adequate pain relief during laparoscopic living donor ne­phrectomy (LDN) is likely to make the procedure more appealing to kidney donors. Various analgesic regimens proposed to relieve pain after laparoscopic surgery include: opioids, non-opioid analgesics followed by opioids for the breakthrough pain and intra-peritoneal normal saline irrigation and instillation of local anaesthetics at surgical sites. Thorough literature review and medline search did not reveal any study where a combination of orogastrie aeetazolamide along with intraperitoneal saline irrigation and bupivacaine instillation techniques have been tried in these patients. In a prospective, double blind, randomized trial, eighty healthy adults undergoing LDN under general anaesthesia were enrolled to compare the efficacy of an acetazolamide based multimodal analgesic approach (Group A) with conventional pain management (Group B). Donors' demographics, intra-operative variables, early allograft function and recovery characteristics were evaluated for 72 hours. The primary end points were postoperative pain intensity on a visual analog scale and the incidence of shoulder tip pain (SIP). The secondary end points included the latency of the rescue analgesia request rate, total analgesic consumption and patient satisfaction. Consistently lower mean pain scores were observed in Group A (p <0.03 for visceral pain). Frequency as well as the total dose of rescue analgesics administered was significantly less in Group A (p=0.001). Twelve patients (30.7%) in Group B complained of STP compared to three (7.5%) in Group A(p=0.025). Shoulder pain also presented earlier (8 hours versus 12 hours) and persisted for longer period in Group B (72 hours versus 48 hours, p 0.025). To conclude, a multimodal analgesic approach consisting a combination of orogastric acetazolamide, intraperito­neal saline irrigation and use of bupivacaine in the operated renal fossa, pfannenstiel incision and laparoscopic port sites provide significant reduction in postoperative pain after LDN.


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