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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 61  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 456-462

Peri-operative blood management

Deapartment of Anaesthesia, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SW3 6JJ, UK

Correspondence Address:
Ravishankar Rao Baikady
The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SW3 6JJ
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_341_17

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Anaemia and allogeneic blood transfusions in surgical patients are associated with poor outcomes. Patient blood management (PBM) has been developed as an evidence-based clinical tool, by which clinicians can optimise anaemia, manage peri-operative bleeding, avoid unnecessary blood transfusion and improve patient outcome. This article aims to highlight the recent updates regarding evidence-based PBM in the perioperative period, following a thorough literature review involving original research articles, published guidelines and consensus documents discovered through an extensive PubMed and Medline search. PBM addresses three main pillars of the patient's journey through the pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative periods. PBM encourages a restrictive approach to transfusion of blood products and promotes alternatives to blood transfusion to maximise clinical efficacy while minimising risks. Anaemia has been identified as an independent risk factor for poor outcomes. PBM highlights the importance of treating anaemia in the pre-operative period. Major elective surgery may be postponed until anaemia is corrected preoperatively. The intra-operative approach to PBM is a collaborative effort between the anaesthesia, surgery and transfusion laboratory teams. Use of tranexamic acid, meticulous haemostasis and cell salvage techniques play an important role during the intra-operative management of surgical and traumatic haemorrhage. Point-of-care coagulation tests with visco-elastographic methods and haemoglobin measurement ensure that the transfusion prescription is tailored to a patient. In the post-operative period, PBM highlights the need for patients to be optimised before discharge from the hospital. Implementation of the PBM has been shown to have individual health as well as economic benefits.

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