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   2018| September  | Volume 62 | Issue 9  
    Online since September 10, 2018

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Physiological and anatomical changes of pregnancy: Implications for anaesthesia
Pradeep Bhatia, Swati Chhabra
September 2018, 62(9):651-657
DOI:10.4103/ija.IJA_458_18  PMID:30237589
During pregnancy, the body goes through various anatomical and physiological changes to provide suitable environment for foetal development, to cater to the increased metabolic demands and to prepare for the childbirth. These changes have notable anaesthetic implications in determining the optimal anaesthetic technique, while also keeping in mind the gestational age, type of procedure and any coexisting medical condition. It is important to note that these changes revert to baseline (pre-pregnancy) levels at different time intervals during the postpartum period which is important while managing postpartum patients. None of the anaesthetic agents are known teratogens; however, there is concern regarding the effects of some agents on the developing brain.
  17,315 3,372 -
Neuraxial techniques of labour analgesia
Sunanda Gupta, Seema Partani
September 2018, 62(9):658-666
DOI:10.4103/ija.IJA_445_18  PMID:30237590
In recent years, many neuraxial techniques have been introduced to initiate and maintain labour analgesia, with low-dose mixtures of local anaesthetics and opioids, which have improved the quality of analgesia and made it safer for both mother and neonate. An independent search of the databases of PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane controlled trial data was conducted by two researchers, and randomized controlled trials that compared different methods of neuraxial analgesia and the different techniques of maintaining labor analgesia were retrieved and analyzed. The advantages, disadvantages, and indications of each technique along with the doses of intrathecal and epidural drugs are discussed. The myths and controversies involving neuraxial labor analgesia and the current consensus on their effect on the maternal and foetal outcomes are also outlined.
  13,182 3,936 -
Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy
Madhusudan Upadya, Sumesh T Rao
September 2018, 62(9):675-681
DOI:10.4103/ija.IJA_475_18  PMID:30237592
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) remain among the most significant and intriguing unsolved problems in obstetrics. In India, the prevalence of HDP was 7.8% with pre-eclampsia in 5.4% of the study population. The anaesthetic problems in HDP may be due to the effects on the cardiovascular, respiratory, neurologic, renal, haematologic, hepatic and uteroplacental systems. The basic management objectives should be facilitating the birth of an infant who subsequently thrives and completes restoration of health to the mother, or the termination of pregnancy with the least possible trauma to mother and foetus in severe pre-eclampsia. This comprises obstetric management, adequate foetal surveillance, antihypertensive management, anticonvulsant therapy, safe analgesia for labour and management of anaesthesia for delivery.
  11,463 3,198 -
Approach to failed spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section
Ketan S Parikh, Shwetha Seetharamaiah
September 2018, 62(9):691-697
DOI:10.4103/ija.IJA_457_18  PMID:30237594
Failure of spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section may have deleterious consequences for the mother as well as the newborn baby. In this article, we discuss the mechanisms of failure of spinal anaesthesia as well as the approach to a failed block. We performed a literature search in Google Scholar, PubMed, and Cochrane databases for original and review articles concerning failed spinal anaesthesia and caesarean section. Strategies for a failed spinal anaesthetic include manoeuvers to salvage the block, repeating the block, epidural anaesthesia or a combined spinal–epidural (CSE) technique, or resorting to general anaesthesia. Factors influencing the choice of these alternative options are discussed. A “failed spinal algorithm” can guide the anaesthesiologist and help reduce morbidity and mortality.
  7,421 2,554 -
Management of major obstetric haemorrhage
Anjan Trikha, Preet Mohinder Singh
September 2018, 62(9):698-703
DOI:10.4103/ija.IJA_448_18  PMID:30237595
One of the most important causes of maternal mortality is major obstetric haemorrhage. Major haemorrhage can occur in parturients either during the antepartum period, during delivery, or in the postpartum period. Early recognition and a multidisciplinary team approach in the management are the cornerstones of improving the outcome of such cases. The management consists of fluid resuscitation, administration of blood and blood products, conservative measures such as uterine cavity tamponade and sutures, and finally hysterectomy. Blood transfusion strategies have changed over the last decade with emphasis on use of fresh frozen plasma, platelets, and fibrinogen. Point-of-care testing for treating coagulopathies promptly and interventional radiological procedures have further revolutionized the management of such cases.
  7,539 2,413 -
Foetal surgery: Anaesthetic implications and strategic management
Bhavani Shankar Kodali, Shobana Bharadwaj
September 2018, 62(9):717-723
DOI:10.4103/ija.IJA_551_18  PMID:30237598
Intrauterine surgery is being performed with increasing frequency. Correction of foetal anomalies in utero can result in normal growth of foetus and a healthier baby at delivery. Intrauterine surgery can also improve the survival of babies who would have otherwise died at delivery, or in the neonatal period. There are three commonly used approaches to correct foetal anomalies: open surgery, where the foetus is exposed through hysterotomy; percutaneous approach, where needle or foetoscope is inserted through the abdominal wall and the uterine wall; finally, ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) surgery, where the intervention is performed on the baby before terminating the maternal umbilical support to the baby. Anaesthetic management of the mother and the foetus requires good understanding of maternal physiology, foetal physiology, and pharmacological and surgical implications to the foetus. Uterine relaxation is a critical requisite for open foetal procedures and EXIT procedures. General anaesthesia and/or regional anaesthesia can be used successfully depending on the nature of foetal intervention. Foetal surgery poses complications not only to the foetus but also to the mother. Therefore, the decision for undertaking foetal surgery should always consider the risk to the mother versus benefit to the foetus.
  4,389 1,667 -
Critical care in obstetrics
Sunil T Pandya, Kiran Mangalampally
September 2018, 62(9):724-733
DOI:10.4103/ija.IJA_577_18  PMID:30237599
Pregnancy is a normal physiologic process with the potential for pathologic states. Pregnancy has several unique characteristics including an utero-placental interface, a physiologic stress that can cause pathologic states to develop, and a maternal–foetal interface that can affect two lives simultaneously or in isolation. Critical illness in pregnant women may result from deteriorating preexisting conditions, diseases that are co-incidental to pregnancy, or pregnancy-specific conditions. Successful maternal and neonatal outcomes for parturients admitted to a maternal critical care facility are largely dependent on a multidisciplinary input to medical or surgical condition from critical care physicians, obstetric anaesthesiologists, obstetricians, obstetric physicians, foetal medicine specialists, neonatologists, and concerned specialists. Pregnant women requiring maternal critical care unit admission are relatively low in developed nations and range from 0.9% to 1%; but in our country, the admission rates of critically ill parturients range from 3% to 8%. Two-thirds of pregnant women requiring critical care are often unanticipated at the time of conception. In this review, we will look at critical illnesses in pregnant women with a specific focus on pregnancy-induced illnesses.
  4,113 1,561 -
Anaesthetic management of obstetric emergencies
Pradeep A Dongare, Madagondapalli S Nataraj
September 2018, 62(9):704-709
DOI:10.4103/ija.IJA_590_18  PMID:30237596
Obstetric emergencies are a challenge both for the obstetrician and the anaesthesiologist. The incidence of caesarean sections as per the National Family Health Survey published in 2015–16 was 17.2%. In 7.6% of cases, the decision to conduct a caesarean section was taken after the onset of labour pains. Caesarean sections are classified depending on the urgency into four categories. The target decision to delivery interval for category 1 caesarean section is less than 30 min. This is used as an audit tool for the efficiency of an obstetric service. The management of these emergencies involves a rapid assessment, with minimal investigations. Although general anaesthesia is considered to have higher morbidity and mortality, category 1 caesarean sections may still warrant this technique. Rapid sequence spinal anaesthesia is replacing general anaesthesia for many of the category 1 indications. In category 2 and 3 caesarean sections, spinal anaesthesia still remains the technique of choice. Failed intubation, failed neuraxial block, extensive neuraxial block, awareness under anaesthesia, thromboembolism, amniotic fluid embolism, haemorrhage and maternal collapse are some of the complications. Haemorrhage is said to be the leading cause of mortality worldwide.
  3,877 1,608 -
Management of anaesthesia for elective, low-risk (Category 4) caesarean section
Komal Anil Gandhi, Kajal Jain
September 2018, 62(9):667-674
DOI:10.4103/ija.IJA_459_18  PMID:30237591
An increasing number of caesarean sections are being performed for both elective as well as emergency cases. Category 4 caesarean section refers to a planned elective surgery after 39 weeks of gestation at a time suitable to the mother and the maternity team. For a safe conduct of anaesthesia, the updated obstetric anaesthesia guidelines recommend administration of neuraxial anaesthesia, whenever feasible. The management should include adequate postoperative pain relief, early ambulation, and thromboprophylaxis to ensure early recovery. This review will discuss the anaesthetic management including regional anaesthesia, general anaesthesia, and postoperative analgesia for elective, low-risk (Category 4) caesarean section.
  3,903 1,538 -
Anaesthesia for non-obstetric surgery in obstetric patients
GL Ravindra, Abhinava S Madamangalam, Shwetha Seetharamaiah
September 2018, 62(9):710-716
DOI:10.4103/ija.IJA_463_18  PMID:30237597
Anaesthesia for pregnant patients presenting for non-obstetric surgery needs a thorough understanding of the physiological changes and altered pharmacokinetics of pregnancy. Considering the effects of surgery and anaesthesia on the foetus, only essential and emergency surgeries are performed during pregnancy. Surgical procedures in second trimester have the advantage of better foetal outcome. The primary concerns of maternal and foetal safety are achieved by a focused multidisciplinary team-based approach with respect to the surgical condition. Meticulous attention to preoperative patient counselling, airway management, haemodynamic stability, and thromboprophylaxis are the key factors in anaesthetic management. Choice of anaesthesia or anaesthetic drugs has minimal impact on the foetus provided utero-placental perfusion and uterine relaxation are maintained. Foetal monitoring when feasible and when done by a trained person enables to diagnose and treat the factors responsible for foetal heart rate variability. Anaesthetic technique needs to be modified according to the type of surgery.
  3,556 1,450 -
Neuraxial anaesthesia in parturient with cardiac disease
Minati Choudhury
September 2018, 62(9):682-690
DOI:10.4103/ija.IJA_474_18  PMID:30237593
Parturient with corrected or uncorrected cardiac problem may undergo neuraxial anaesthesia for several reasons and in different trimesters. The altered physiological state in a parturient is further deranged in the presence of a cardiovascular lesion, producing the added risk to the parturient undergoing a neuraxial block. A detailed evaluation, knowledge regarding cardiovascular disease state, more vigilant monitoring, and a team approach can lead to a successful outcome.
  3,402 1,576 -